Monday, January 20, 2020

Virginia Woolfs To The Lighthouse Essay -- To The Lighthouse Essays

     Ã‚  Ã‚   She was not inventing; she was only trying to smooth out something she had been given years ago folded up; something she had seen. For   in the rough and tumble of daily life, with all those children about, all those visitors, one had constantly a sense of repetition-of one thing falling where another had fallen, and so setting up an echo which chimed in the air and made it full of vibrations. (199)    What causes that crumpling? What makes the accumulated images fold up over the years? How can one smooth out the folds? These are the pivotal questions raised in the above passage, which captures the central exploration in Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse.   Change and chaos create folds in Lily's life. She clings to images of Mrs. Ramsay as an iron. "For there are moments when one can neither think nor feel," (Woolf 193), but even in the agony of intense change, one can always see. Like a muse, Mrs. Ramsay's lasting presence inspires Lily to create a painting that irons out the folds.   Lily eventually accepts some distance from Mrs. Ramsay, as well, which becomes another liberating step in the process of smoothing out her jagged soul. When those images are rediscovered, and sometimes re-invented, change is produced. Ultimately, Lily is released from the past, while smoothing out the creases.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lily's ambivalent feelings toward Mrs. Ramsay make her life creased and conflicted: "Lily feels forced to choose between rejecting the beloved mothering figure or becoming again a panicky, dependent child whose poor self-image undermines her ability to have a vision of her own" (Caramagno 253).   She tends toward the position as dependent child because it brings permanence, but she vacillat... ...in To the Lighthouse."   Philological Quarterly. 14 April 2002 <http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/>. Lilienfeld, Jane. "Where the Spear Plants Grew."   New Feminist Essays on Virginia Woolf.   Ed. Jane Marcus. London: Macmillan Press, 1981. Mepham, John. Criticism in Focus. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1992. Minogue, Sally. "Was it a vision? Structuring emptiness in To the Lighthouse." Journal of Modern Literature. 12 April 2002 <http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/>. Rosenman, Ellen Bayuk. The Invisible Presence: Virginia Woolf and the Mother-Daughter Relationship. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986. Stewart, Jack. "A 'Need of Distance and Blue': Space, Color, and Creativity in To the  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lighthouse." Twentieth Century Literature 12 April 2002 <http://web6infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/>.   

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Satyajit Ray’s First Original Screenplay

The film was first conceived to take place in a large mansion, but Ray later decided to film it in the famous hill town, using the many shades of light and mist to reflect the tension in the drama. An amused Ray noted that while his script allowed shooting to be possible under any lighting conditions, a commercial film contingent present at the same time in Darjeeling failed to shoot a single shot as they only wanted to do so in sunshine.. † fact remains that Ray shot this film with masterfully chosen available light conditions(read:no reflectors,you morons! to depict the subtle interplay of light and shade to blend in with progress of the storyline! (as an aside ray recounts the sad story of a Bollywood film crew who arrived in Darjeeling at the same time as ray's team,and were still waiting for the elusive sun to arrive so they could begin shooting by the time ray had his whole film in the can and packed up to go home! ) the climactic scene of the kanchenjungha suddenly makin g a brilliant appearance at the penultimate hour never fails to bring out goosebumps! efinitely recommended. The single most noteworthy feature about this movie is the equivalence of real time (total time of the day being depicted in movie) and movie time (total screening time). At least among the Indian movie makers, Ray is the first one who had done such experiment and of course, he succeeded comprehensively. It depicts a real time event of 100 minutes on screen. So, in order to understand ‘the drama' it's recommended to understand his language to the extent possible.It comprise snapshots of various human characteristics like pride, simplicity, carnal desires, thoughtlessness, romance, heroism and above all triumph of human spirits over conventional, social idiosyncrasy. All this happens in the hill station of Darjeeling, in the lap of nature with the picturesque eastern Himalayas in the backdrop. It is mentionable that the background of all the above characters, their thoug ht process and behavioral traits have been brilliantly presented through series of well conceived dialogues. Yes, only dialogues. No third person narratives. No visual manifestation in terms of flash back, dream sequences etc.In fact, the master storyteller has been able to generate such an evocative dialogue sequences that at the end of the film, the audience acquire full capacity to judge each and every character in the light of respective rationale. It is also noteworthy that Ray's characters never surpass the humane status quo. They reflect relevant cognitive behavior and contextual influences. Be it â€Å"Siddartha† in Pratidwandi or â€Å"Arindam† in Nayak, one can never expect Ray's protagonists molded in typical ubermanesque image in stark contrast to the so-called Heroes of Hollywood and Bollywood.It is also noteworthy that Ray's characters never surpass the humane status quo. They reflect relevant cognitive behavior and contextual influences. Be it â€Å"Sid dartha† in Pratidwandi or â€Å"Arindam† in Nayak, one can never expect Ray's protagonists molded in typical ubermanesque image in stark contrast to the so-called Heroes of Hollywood and Bollywood. Kanchenjungha substantiate that. The elitist, urban Mr. Banerjee asserts boastfully about his professional and materialistic achievements. He even confesses about his clandestine foreign affairs while wooing his ladylove Monisha.This refined gentleman also depicts a prosaic approach towards conjugality and life in general. Towards the end he displays an extremely liberal and tolerant attitude, which is commendable in the realms of dominating, patriarchal association. Any write-up on Kanchenjungha would remain unfinished if it doesn't mention the incorporation of ‘nature' that accentuated the varied moods of the film — An overcast evening to suggest unfavorable circumstances, mist to render underlying tension and sunshine to portray agreeable settlement.Finally th e mighty Kanchengha with all its splendor depict celebration of hope and aspiration. However, Ray has managed to remain an aloof and neutral presenter throughout the process of the film, which adds to the aesthetics of this cinematic masterpiece. This Ray film is fraught with imagery, symbolism, metaphors and weaves in a few independent stories together to culminate into an understanding of the human psyche.Coming to Kanchenjunga (the name belongs to the world's third tallest mountain peak which is said to be elusive to human eye as it's perennially clouded due to fog), the film follows a group of tourists on vacation in Darjeeling, a hill station – the first thing that comes to your mind is just how fraught the film is with metaphors- linking the human mind and attitudes to nature's marvels- thereby the dense fog which prevents our protagonist (played mesmerisingly by Chabi Biswas) from seeing Kanchenjunga clearly is symbolic of his myopic opinions and it is lifted in the la st scene where fter stripping himself away from all his erstwhile prejudices, he is able to view Kanchejunga for the first time. But, in the end, Kanchenjunga remains a film about human emotions which also talks about the socio- economic divide and dwells into the complex inflexible minds of some of us. The appropriate use of the natural lighting & weather conditions (may be the best in Ray's career).

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Discovery Of Being Mummified Essay - 1047 Words

Do you know the process of being mummified? Well I will tell you all about the process of being mummified. When pharaohs or very rich people die in Egypt they take all of their organs out except for their heart. They were then wrapped in linen cloth and put in a sarcophagus. (A sarcophagus was a coffin.) Before they are placed in the linen cloth they are given an amulet to keep evil away. They are said to have an afterlife. In their afterlife they are said to live eternally. The first type of tomb was called the mastaba and it was made out of mud-bricks. They were buried with all of their valuable stuff like jewels, gold, silver, and etc. To protect the tomb where the body is they put traps everywhere so when intruders come in to look at it they die. If the intruder gets caught stealing the tomb they would be whipped, tortured and some got their hands chopped off. Then they were executed by being burned alive or being impaled on a stake. The ancient Egyptians also attempted to deter tomb robbers by a pharaoh’s curse. During the 1st Dynasty human and animal sacrifice played a role in the funeral rituals. Males were depicted with reddish-brown colored skin reflecting odor pursuits whereas females were painted with a yellowish colored skin. Tomb painting of gods and pharaohs were always depicted as young and healthy. Some of the most famous pharaohs including Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun (King Tut), Thutmose and Ramses II are buried in the Valley of the Kings.Show MoreRelatedThe Griffin, The Mermaid, And The Giant Cyclops1741 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscovered by ancient peoples often became the fodder of folklore. Early fossil discoveries guided folklore and helped to define cultures’ belief systems as seen through art, literature, and traditions. The Griffin, the mermaid, and the Giant Cyclops are three well-known legendary creatures of art, literature, and culture. Examining the fossil basis of these three creatures gives us an idea of the extent of early fossil discoveries and their ensuing impact on cultural anthropology. The Griffin The legendRead MoreEssay on The Process of Mummification754 Words   |  4 PagesThe body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike. Often the mummy would be over filled with sawdust and it would explode. Some times the embalmers made mistakes and a body was badly mummified. It would turn dark and brittle and limbs would drop off. If the person had a missing limb due to bad mummification or because they had previously had a limb missing wooden ones would be used as substitutes. Finally the bodyRead MoreThe Art of Mummification Essay1362 Words   |  6 Pagesof the dark skin of mummies, which people mistook for bitumen. Bitumen is a mineral formed for a tar like substance. (Becket 31) One of the main reasons to prepare the body, making it look like bitumen, was for the afterlife. After being prepared, they are still being found this day, and have been a huge attraction of fascination and scientific curiosity. (Becket 29) Mummification is a way to preserve the human body in various forms and ways through out the world. What makes a mummy a mummy? Read MoreThe Discovery Of Dna Testing1179 Words   |  5 Pagesspecialized tools and processes while utilizing new discoveries to aid understanding of the past. One significant advancement is the discovery of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The discovery of DNA has greatly enhanced our ability to analyze ancient remains and interpret the findings within the field of archeology. To fully demonstrate the impact that DNA has brought to the field of archeology it is important to understand the historical discovery of DNA and initial integration into the field of archeologyRead MoreThe Artifacts And The Mummy Of King Tutankhamen s Tomb1498 Words   |  6 Pagesdeeper understanding on the reign of Tut himself and his great excursions, and the autopsy of the mummified King. There will also be an overview of the effects this discovery had on culture and society soon after its discovery, and a brief discussion over the tomb. A primary source being evaluated for re search is the book Egyptomania by Bob Brier which explained what sort of cultural impacts the discovery had on the tomb, the society craze towards it, and the industrial response set by corporationsRead MoreThe Denver Museum Of Nature And Science Essay1393 Words   |  6 Pagesand model replicas of one of the women s skulls that round out the exhibition. The most interesting artifact was an ancient wooden box. This box contained a woman wrapped in linens and mummified. Using our cultures latest technology, this woman was given full body X rays and CT scans, and the sarcophagus is being examined by hieroglyph experts and is undergoing radiocarbon dating. This exhibit represents our culture’s curiosity of ancient times, but also our advances since those times. The UnitedRead MoreThe Man Inside The Tobacco Barn1482 Words   |  6 Pagesthat was killed in the tobacco barn was actually a messenger of John Wilkes Booth. Booth broke his leg while fleeing from Ford’s Theater the night he killed Lincoln. He then secretly saw a doctor, and continued fleeing from the authorities while being hidden in the back of a wagon. Booth carried papers with him at all times that identified him as the assassin of Lincoln, although they were very risky and could cause his demise. One day, during his escape in the wagon, Booth was informed that theRead MoreReligion and Society of Ancient Egypt536 Words   |  2 Pagesher connections to which gods. Thanks to our discoveries left by the dedicated scribes, we also have discovered that the ancient Egyptians also believed that to join the afterlife, the Ka left the body. The Ka was still conn ected to the body, that’s why they preserved the bodies of certain subjects. The first mummies were said to have been created almost by accident. They buried the dead in shallows graves and the sand and hot sun had naturally mummified the body. Burials Because the people believedRead MoreSelf-Discovery and Exploration in The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho1665 Words   |  7 PagesThe Alchemist, a novel written by Paulo Coelho teaches us about the importance of self-discovery and exploration by taking us through the journey of a young Andalusian shepherd, Santiago. Paulo Coelho was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 24th 1947, to Pedro Quiema Coelho de Souza, an engineer, and his wife, Lygia, a homemaker. Paulo early on had dreamed of an artistic career and then after his surroundings in Jesuit school, he discovered his true vocation was to be a writer (Coelho 195)Read MoreMummy: Ancient Egypt and Mummification2158 Words   |  9 Pagesmummies is Ginger, currently stored at the British Museum. Ginger was buried in a shallow grave and wrapped only in light cloth but due to the hot, dry desert he survived intact to discovery in the late 19th century. Ginger’s name comes from the color of his hair, which is still att ached to his body. Evidence from his discovery supports the belief that even at this early age the Egyptians believed in the afterlife. Tools and pottery were found buried with Ginger’s body, which suggests that there was

Friday, December 27, 2019

Love A Complex Mix of Chemistry, Psychology, Culture and...

Love is by far one of the most talked about, written about, expressed and implied feelings in the human array of emotions. The Beatles told us that â€Å"love is all you need†. Dr. Theodor Geisel, best known under the pseudonym Seuss, stated that â€Å"When you are in love you cant fall asleep because reality is better than your dreams.† Douglas Adams gave us a dry warning in his book The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, stressing that, in terms of love, â€Å"Avoid, if at all possible.† With all the artists, poets, writers, philosophers, scientists, and thinkers of the world giving us conflicting and equally meaningful views of love, can it really be explained? Love is loosely defined as â€Å"strong affection for another arising out of†¦show more content†¦Serotonin is also the neurotransmitter which causes Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, a condition that causes repetitive and obsessive actions in individuals, which may explain its effects on people in love. The other biological factor of love is attachment, which is stimulated by the neurotransmitters oxytocin and vasopressin. Oxytocin is a hormone released during hugging, touching, and orgasm. Oxytocin is key in social recognition, as well as bonding and the formation of trust. Thus, couples who have more sex are thought to develop a closer bond. Vasopressin is also a neurotransmitter released after sex which controls thirst, in this case sexual thirst or the desire for other mates. Therefore, long-term commitment is deepened, laying the basis for a more stable pair-bond. The cognitive factors of love are intense and varied. Love often induces individuals to disregard rational thinking and succumb to things such as â€Å"mood swings, possessiveness, emotional dependence, separation anxiety and elation as well as obsessive thinking.† Love is often more potent than the mammalian sex drive. While sex alone does not lead to depression, homicide, or suicide, love that is not reciprocated can lead to one or more of the former. There aShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesSatisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 HumanRead MoreMarketing Is A Process By Individuals And Groups Obtain5963 Words   |  24 Pagesbusiness market, knowledge and awareness of product is very essential for marketing people as businesses are on the lookout to maintain or establish a credential in their respective market. 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Nurses communicate in a number of different ways: orallyRead MoreMarketing Is A Societal Process10294 Words   |  42 Pagesa strong and solid business make sure that the business has a marketing strategy. Marketing strategy combines all of the marketing goals into one comprehensive plan. Also, it can draw from marketing research or focus on the right amount of product mix to make your business achieve to the maximum profit potential and sustain the business. The marketing strategy is used by many companies that’s their way of communicating with the other consumers. 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The word is God; speech has a mysterious power; the name evokes the thing. These three points of view - these three facets of the one idea - explain many ancient and modern euphemisms; and the same emotion or attitude, at different s tages, is represented by the philosophic concept of the Logos and the popular belief implicit in speak of the devil. 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Taken as a whole, it is first of all a fact, and as such it raises problems of aesthetics, of sociology, and of semiotics, as well as of the psychologies of perception and intellection. Whether good or bad, each film is, first of all, a piece of cinema (in the way that one speaks of a piece of music). As an anthropological fact, the cinema has a certain configuration, certain fixed structures andRead MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words   |  339 PagesEntrepreneurship,† The Entrepreneurship Forum, winter 1991). â€Å"Most of the attempts to distinguish between entrepreneurs and small business owners or managers have discovered no differentiating features† (R. H. Brockhaus and P. S. Horwitz, â€Å"The Psychology of the Entrepreneur† in The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship, 1986). Solution) to develop a methodology for determining what percentage of a ï ¬ rm’s market value could be attributed to its existing businesses (products, services, markets)

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Personal Reflection On My Personal Philosophy - 1329 Words

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how my experiences in life influenced my personal ethical development. By reflecting on my life experiences, I will explore how my upbringing, and my faith influenced my morals and values. This paper will also explore ethical issues in counseling, and ethical codes used to resolve the issues. In addition, this paper I will reflect how this course has changed me in certain aspects regarding ethics and legal obligations in counseling. Section I 1) Family influences My parents have definitely influenced the decisions I make. My parents have always helped to teach me right from wrong. My moral guidances have been centered around my mother. This has benefited me immensely. My parents have and will always be a supporter. When in the midst of making a decision, I almost always ask myself, What would my parents want me to do in this situation? I greatly value the teachings of my mother, and I can attribute her teachings to my ethical decision-making. I can also contribute my passion for helping others to my mother. I know I will be a better counselor if I uphold the values and teachings of my mother, who is one of the most important person in my life. Section II 2) Environmental influences My faith is the foundation that I ground my life on. I was raised up in a religious environment. My faith is my guidance when it comes to my ethical decision-making. The teachings of my faith allowed me to tell a part right and wrong, andShow MoreRelatedMy Reflection Of My Personal Philosophy Of Life1228 Words   |  5 PagesPhilosophy of Life In my short seventeen years, I have experienced a great multitude of feelings towards my own personal experiences. My own reactions to the external circumstances that the universe has thrown at me, and I do indeed mean thrown, have allowed me to grow as a young woman and simultaneously allow me the privilege of looking at life through the lenses I wear today. Because the way I perceive my life to date is how I have been able to assemble the three things I value most in it: stayingRead MoreMy Reflection Of A Personal Early Childhood Education Philosophy878 Words   |  4 PagesIn this paper, I have developed a personal early childhood education philosophy statement. I will reflect and discuss my personal learning philosophy through topics such as: the purpose of education, how children learn best, what should be included in the curriculum, what environment children learn best in, what needs must be met for children to grow and learn, and how I can meet those needs. Every interaction with a child is important, and helps them to grow and develop. I want to create positiveRead MoreSelf-Reflection - Leadership Development Essay861 Words   |  4 PagesSelf-Reflection - Leadership Development Many varied management and leadership philosophies exist and no single style or approach can be considered to be the ‘correct’ one. Regardless of management and leadership philosophies, self-reflection has played, and will continue to play, a significant role in the shaping of a managers leadership philosophy. Depending on the level of consciousness that a manager has in regards to self-reflection, along with how they communication their management andRead MoreEstablishing A Leadership Philosophy Helps Guide Actions, Behaviors And Thoughts1728 Words   |  7 Pagesleaders wield a certain significant level of influence within their organizations or over their followers based upon their own personal philosophy. Being a leader without considering on a personal level key values that one finds important can result in inconsistent outcomes. Establishing a leadership philosophy helps guide actions, behaviors and thoughts. A leadership philosophy is developed through a combi nation of internal and external forces that impact an individual over their lifetime. There haveRead MoreReflection Of My Own Personal Development1637 Words   |  7 Pagesestablished that reflection is a generic term for intellectual and effective activities, in which individuals examine their experiences, in order to develop new understanding and intrapersonal appreciation (Knowles, et al., 2006). Research in this field has advocated reflective practice as an approach to professional development which positively impacts coaching effectiveness (Cropley, et al., 2012). This reflective report shall discuss, analyse and evaluate my own personal development throughout my first semesterRead MoreA Personal Philosophy Of Education Essay1164 Words   |  5 PagesA Personal Philosophy of Education Introduction â€Å"Being reflective involves thinking about what one is doing, and why, before, during, and after the act of doing it (Sweitzer, 2003 p.264). I believe self-knowledge of the professor is critical for meaningful learning to occur. Self-knowledge through reflection allows the professor to embrace teaching through the eyes of a scholar; thus providing a diverse learning environment supporting engagement and motivation of the learner. This paper describesRead MorePersonal Philosophy of Supervision1168 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Personal Philosophy of Supervision Grand Canyon University Developmental Supervision EDA-551 Holbeck May 12, 2014 Personal Philosophy of Supervision I believe that each student is a person who needs a safe, caring, and stimulating environment in which they can grow emotionally, intellectually, physically, and socially. As a teacher it is my desire that each student reached their fullest potential in each of these areas by providing them a warm, safe, caring and cooperativeRead MoreThe Role Of A Teaching Philosophy Statement1408 Words   |  6 PagesThe Role of a Teaching Philosophy Statement (TPS) Personal development is one aspect of gaining new information to enhance skills, abilities and overall knowledge. The development of a TPS, is a personal analysis of general concepts of teaching, learning, observations and experiences, transferred into the learning environment (Caukin, 2017). Consequently, the statement is intimate, insightful, with an inclusion of personal views of the aspects of teaching, foundation of learning, in addition toRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Nursing935 Words   |  4 Pagesthe field of nursing is no different. A variety of philosophies, models, and theories exist to steer nurses in their practice. In terms of philosophy, nurses should develop their own broad view or, in the alternative, adopt an existing way of thinking that resonates with their worldview in order to provide consistent, competent, and meaningful care in their areas of practice. In this regard, this paper seeks to explore my personal philosophy about nursing by analyzing and reflecting upon the nursingRead MorePersonal Views On Philosophy And Philosophy893 Words   |  4 Pagesdeveloped specific views of my individuality and what it meant to be human through personal life experiences. I never put much thought into ideology or views that have shaped our world into what it is today. This class, not only through readings and interactions has enlightened me into being a more rounded human being. It has added an intellectual viewpoint that has changed my way of thinking throughout daily life interactions. I am humbled to admit exactly how naà ¯ve my personal viewpoints have set me

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Mark Twain Samuel Clemens or None of the Above Essay Example For Students

Mark Twain Samuel Clemens or None of the Above Essay Mark Twain was one of the most popular and well-known authors of the 1800’s. He is recognized for being a humorist. He used humor or social satire in his best works. His writing is known for â€Å"realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression† (Mark Twain 1). Mark Twain was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835. He was born on the Missouri frontier in a small log village called Florida. His parents had come to Florida from their former home in Tennessee (Unger 192). When Clemens was four, he moved with his family to Hannibal, Missouri, a port on the Mississippi River (Mark Twain 1). His father, who had studied law in Kentucky, was a local magistrate and small merchant (Unger 193). When Samuel was twelve, his father died. He was then apprenticed to two local printers (Unger 193). When he was sixteen, Clemens began setting type for the local newspaper Hannibal Journal, which his older brother Orion managed (Mark Twain 1). In 1853, when Samuel was eighteen, he left Hannibal for St. Louis (Unger 194). There he became a steam boat pilot on the Mississippi River. Clemens piloted steamboats until the Civil War in 1861. Then he served briefly with the Confederate army (Mark Twain 1). In 1862 Clemens became a reporter on the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, Nevada. In 1863 he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Mark Twain, a Mississippi River phrase meaning â€Å"two fathoms deep† (Bloom 43). In 1865, Twain reworked a tale he had heard in the California gold fields, and within months the author and the story, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, had become national sensations (Bloom 47). In 1867 Twain lectured in New York City, and in the same year he visited Europe and Palestine. He wrote of these travels in The Innocents Abroad. This book exaggerated those aspects of European culture that impress American tourists (Bain, Flora, and Rubin 103). Many claim that The Innocents Abroad is Mark Twain’s second-best book (Unger 198). In 1870 he married Olivia Langdon. After living briefly in Buffalo, New York, the couple moved to Hartford, Connecticut (Bain, Flora, and Rubin 104). Much of Mark Twain’s best work was written in the 1870’s and 1880’s in Hartford and during the summers at Quarry Farm, near Elmira, New York (Bain Flora and Rubin 104). It was at Quarry Farm that he wrote Roughing It in 1872, which recounts his early adventures as a miner and journalist. While vacationing in New York one summer in 1876 he wrote his most famous story of all. Mark Twain wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Bloom 50). It is about Tom Sawyer, who is a twelve-year-old boy who lives on the Mississippi River. He is mischievous, adventurous, and humorous. Tom is loved by readers around the world. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer brought Twain to the top of the best-seller’s list, where he remained for eight weeks (Unger 199). Mark Twain once said that he liked Tom Sawyer because â€Å"Tom represented eve rything that he had loved as a boy, and because if the world thought like Tom Sawyer, everyone would forget about their troubles and become happier people† (Kunitz 355). Twain wrote the sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1884. The sequel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is considered by many to be Twain’s masterpiece (Mark Twain 1). The book is the story of Tom Sawyer’s best friend, Huck. He flees his father, the town drunk, by raft down the Mississippi River with a runaway slave, Jim. The pair’s adventures show Huck and the reader the cruelty of which men and women are capable. Another theme of the novel is the conflict between Huck’s feelings of friendship with Jim, who is one of the few people he can trust, and his knowledge that he is breaking the laws of the time by helping Jim escape (Mark Twain 2). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which is almost entirely narrated from Huck’s point of view, is noted for its authentic language and for its deep commitment to freedom (Marshall 232). In 1884, Twain formed the firm â€Å"Charles L. Webster and Company† to publish his and other writer’s w orks. The most famous books published there were The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Personal Memoirs, which was written by American general and president Ulysses S. Grant (Mark Twain 2). A disastrous investment in an automatic typesetting machine led to the firm’s bankruptcy in 1894. A successful worldwide lecture tour and the book he wrote in 1897 based on those travels, Following the Equator, paid off Twain’s debts. .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .postImageUrl , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:hover , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:visited , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:active { border:0!important; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:active , .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468 .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ude7c695397fd027543275fd37db8c468:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A Clean WellLighted Place by Ernest Hemmingway EssayIn Mark Twain’s later years he wrote less, but he became a celebrity, frequently speaking out on public issues. He also came to be known for the white linen suit that he always wore when making public appearances (Unger 204). Twain received an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1907. He died in 1910, at the age of 75. When Twain died, he left an uncompleted autobiography, which was eventually edited by his secretary, Albert Bigelow Paine, and published in 1924 (Mark Twain 2). Mark Twain is still credited as being a major influence by most writers today. His work is still popular and will live on fo r many years. Bain, Flora, and Rubin. Southern Writers: A Biographical Dictionary. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979. Bloom, Harold. Mark Twain. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Kunitz, Stanley J., and Haycraft, Howard. American Authors 1600-1900:A Biographical Dictionary of American Literature. New York: H.W.Wilson Company, 1938. Marshall, Sara. America In Literature: The South. New York: Charles Scribner’sSon’s, 1979. â€Å"Twain, Mark†. Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Unger, Leonard. American Writers IV: A Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974. Bibliography:Works CitedBain, Flora, and Rubin. Southern Writers: A Biographical Dictionary. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979. Bloom, Harold. Mark Twain. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Kunitz, Stanley J., and Haycraft, Howard. American Authors 1600-1900:A Biographical Dictionary of American Literature. New York: H.W.Wilson Company, 1938. Marshall, Sara. America In Literature: The South. New York: Charles Scribner’sSon’s, 1979. â€Å"Twain, Mark†. Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Unger, Leonard. American Writers IV: A Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Physics Data Analysis coursework Essay Example

Physics Data Analysis coursework Essay This coursework assignment requires me analyse and evaluate data on copper and constantan given to me. It entails investigating the youngs modulus of the metal and alloy. Thus I will use many methods during to complete my investigation. Aims: 1. To draw stress and strain graphs for the metal copper and the alloy constantan 2. To calculate the figures of youngs modulus for copper and constantan We will write a custom essay sample on Physics Data Analysis coursework specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Physics Data Analysis coursework specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Physics Data Analysis coursework specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 3. To discuss the physics involved Plan: In this investigation I have received results for extension of copper and constantan for certain forces applied to it, for which I will analyse and calculate the youngs modulus. The results I have been given are forces applied to copper and constantan, three sets of results for the metal and alloy and this can be used by averaging data to give more accurate results thus these results given to me will be used to create graphs, calculate youngs modulus and analyse data for both metals so I can complete my investigation. I will need to draw a force and extension graph for both copper and constantan, the extension shown will be the averaged value for each metal. I will also calculate the stress and strain values and plot this on a graph for both copper and constantan, I will plot these on the same graph and analyse the graph, hence I can find any patterns from the data and this will require me to draw my graphs accurately so I can correctly analyse the results to make judgements and conclusions. I will use Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program to make tables of data, with the data I have been given. I will be using formulas to calculate average extension, stress, strain and youngs modulus for copper and constantan. I will also set my tables so that all data is to two significant figures. I have included a diagram of the set-up (Figure 1) below which was used to obtain the results I was given. Figure 1 (SOURCE: AS PHYSICS CDROM) The experiment works by a G-Clamp holding the wooden block steady, this will place pressure on the wire to keep it steady at the clamped end. The cardboard bridges keep the wire straight and in place throughout its length. The pulley allows the wire to move freely along it to keep friction minimum. As load is increased this puts pressure on wire and it may extend in length, which is the variable I will be measuring. A micrometer has been used to measure the diameter of both copper and constantan wires, the length was measured by use of a one metre rule. The measurements were made three times and then averaged, thus I was supplied with the following measurements: CONSTANTAN COPPER DIAMETER (mm) 0.35 0.37 LENGTH OF WIRE (m) 2.1 2.1 The results obtained from the experiment (diameter ; length of wire, force and three sets of extension readings) will be used to calculate the following: * Area= ? rà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (where r= Radius of wire) * Strain = Extension à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Original length * Stress = Force à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Area * Youngs Modulus: Stress à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Strain These calculations in turn will enable me to plot graphs. The stress over strain graphs will be analysed and linear sections used to calculate youngs modulus, as both copper and constantan data will be plotted on the same graph I can find the differences between these materials in terms of youngs modulus elastic limits. Other factors I will be considering in the investigation will be differences in stiffness (Youngs Modulus) of both materials and if this affects the ductility, tensile strengths and other physical aspects of the materials. Prediction using scientific knowledge: I would predict that the youngs modulus of constantan will be higher than copper as it is an alloy and as we know alloys are generally less ductile and harder than pure metals. So hence it would take more load to create an extension for the alloy. Hence constantan would be stiffer and so this is why its youngs modulus would be higher than that of copper. The youngs modulus would tell me how stiff a material is when it is stretched. When a material is stretched, an increase in it length occurs (the extension) and it is proportional to the load, this means it obeys Hookes law. When a load is applied to materials they would go under extension until their elastic limit is reached, this means if you remove the load/force applied to it then it would go back into its original length. However if more load/force is applied and the material exceeds its elastic limit then the material yields and it becomes permanently deformed. (Adapted from Physics CD-Rom 40s). The youngs modulus can be shown on a graph of stress against strain. I have included a simple stress and strain graph (Figure2) to show how a material changes with different stress and stains added to it. (picture from gpc.edu/~pgore/geology/geo101/ crustaldeform.php). This graph shows how the initial linear section of the graph is when strain is proportional to stress. The part marked X is the elastic limit or yield point, this is the point of no return from this moment on the material in question is permanently deformed and can no longer return to its original state. The linear section however can be used to calculate the Youngs modulus of the material, by stress/strain. Figure 2 As I mentioned earlier that I believe the youngs modulus of constantan will be higher than copper, this is because it is an alloy. Constantan Copper with 45% nickel (Quoted from http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=60). The constantan alloy with added nickel gives copper extra strength, The nickel content in these alloys also enables them to retain their strength at elevated temperatures compared to copper alloys without nickel (Quoted from http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=60). This statement shows that pure copper is less able to keep its strength compared to copper alloys with nickel e.g. constantan. The structures of alloys differ to pure metals. It is this structure that causes differences in properties of alloys and pure metals. It is the presence of an other metal that makes alloys stronger than pure metals. As pure metals may have dislocations in them this makes it easy for slips to occur, as there are spaces in between atoms called dislocations, and it is easy for these atoms to slip over each other hence this is why pure metals are more ductile than alloys. As shown in figure 3, the metal alloy has its dislocation pinned, thus meaning the presence of the extra metal (e.g. so presence of nickel in copper) means that dislocations are filled in, and hence this makes it more difficult for the metal to slip making it less ductile. (Adapted from Advancing Physics AS Textbook page 116-117). In order to work out Youngs modulus I will need to calculate the stress acting on the metal and alloy wires. Stress is calculated by force/area. The stress is force per unit area (Quoted from Advancing physics textbook). The yield stress is the amount of stress it takes for a material to yield, this is when a metal gives before it snaps/breaks, at this point and beyond it is permanently deformed and cannot return to its original shape (also called elastic limit) and breaking stress is the amount of stress it takes to break a material. The yield and breaking stress differs between different types of materials. Figure four shows how alloys and pure metals differ. As can be seen alloy metals have a higher yield stress than pure metals, this is due to their structure makes slipping more difficult. Figure 4 Apparatus: * Table: To conduct experiment on * Wooden Blocks: Helps to keep wire steady and in place when fixed onto the G-clamp * Copper ; Constantan wire (3 of each): These wires are used to conduct the experiment as we are testing how the extension of these changes with load. * Pulley: A smooth running surface for the wire, over the edge of the table. Hence this will let the wire extend with force with minimal friction. * Masses: These will be used to put load on the wires to give an extension reading. * Mass hanger: This will hold the masses that are applied to the wires. * G-Clamp: This will hold the wooden blocks in place which in turn will hold the wire in a stationary position. * Sellotape: To hold the metre rule in place and to stick the marker onto the wire * Marker: This will be placed along each wire before the experiment begins this will show how much the wire extends when a force is applied to it. * Metre rule: Placed in a stationary position and as the marker moves when force is added to it I will be able to see the extension. Method: I have not specifically carried out this experiment to obtain results for this coursework, but I carried out this experiment in my first term of my AS-Level physics course and so I am able to write out a methodology for the experiment that I have received results for as it is the identical experiment. The following is a method for the experiment: 1. All equipment will need to be collected, table, wooden blocks, copper and constantan wire, pulley, masses and mass hangers, G-clamp, sellotape, marker and a metre rule. 2. Collect both copper and constantan wires together and cut to 2.1m long each using the meter rule and measure the diameter of each wire using a micrometer. Measurements of wire length in meters and wire diameter in millimetres (later converted to meters by dividing by one thousand). 3. Record the measurements of wire length and diameter. Then work out cross-sectional area of the wire by halving diameter to get the radius of each wire and then put in to the formula ? rà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½, to obtain the cross-sectional area of the wire. 4. I will place the meter rule on the table, using sellotape to keep it steady. The G-clamp and pulley will also be clamped to the table at this time, pulley at the end of the table and G-clamp at approximately 2 metres from the pulley (as shown in Figure 1) 5. Set up wooden bridges at ten centimetres from the G-clamp and collect copper wire and clamp it onto the G-clamp and extend the wire so it is hanging over the pulley. 6. Attach mass hanger to the end of the wire which is at the end of the pulley and then place the marker on the wire where the metre rule reads 0 centimetres. 7. Collect the two Newton masses and place on one two Newton mass on the mass hanger. Measure the extension created by increased load. (Extension from 0 centimetres on ruler, shown by marker on wire). Record extension created with this weight on a force extension table. 8. Repeat step seven by adding two Newton mass until 48N load is reached or the wire breaks (whichever is sooner). Fair Test: * For each wire test it three times and average the results, with same conditions each time * Carry it out all experimental work on the same day, same conditions and using all of the same apparatus. * Keep metre stick stationary for every test, so to keep extension values fair for every test. * Do not alter the position of G-clamp, Pulley, metre rule, wooden blocks and table during all the experiments have been completed * Use all wire from same roll and the copper and constantan must be manufactured by the same company. Safety: * When adding masses to the mass hanger be sure not to step in the falling range of the masses as they could injure feet * Wear goggles while conducting the experiment as when the wire snaps it could take to the air in any direction and hit the eye. Results: The results I have been given were given to me on paper format, I have entered these results into the spreadsheet program Microsoft excel and calculated additional calculations to help me plot graphs. The results for copper and constantan are shown on the next two pages. In the data given to me I received the extension readings in millimetres, however it is required to be in metres. The conversion process used to convert millimetres to metres is shown below: e.g. 33mm ; (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 1000) ; Value of 0.033m achieved Also needed to be calculated is cross sectional area of the wires copper and constantan, needed to calculate stress which in turn is used to calculate youngs modulus. The r value is radius, which is half the diameter, so it is divided by two to give the radius. The calculations I did for cross sectional areas of both wires is shown below: Cross sectional area = ?rà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Copper r= 0.37/2= 0.185mm Conversion to m= 1.85E-4 Calculations= ? (0.000185à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½) = 1.08e-7mà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cross sectional area= ?rà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Constantan r = 0.35/2= 0.175mm Conversion to m= 1.75E-4 Calculations= ? (0.000175à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½) = 9.62e-8mà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The stress can now be calculated by force F divided by cross sectional area A. The strain is simply average extension E divided by length. The average extension value was calculated by the formula =AVERAGE(cell address: cell address), this is the mean extension values. The length value L was a constant at 2.1metres. COPPER Force (N) Extension (m) Extension (m) Extension (m) Average Extension (m) Stress (F/A) Strain (E/L) Youngs Modulus 0 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.00E+00 0.000E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 2 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.00E+00 1.860E+07 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 4 1.000E-03 1.000E-03 2.000E-03 1.33E-03 3.720E+07 6.35E-04 5.86E+10 6 3.000E-03 2.000E-03 3.000E-03 2.67E-03 5.580E+07 1.27E-03 4.39E+10 8 4.000E-03 3.000E-03 3.000E-03 3.33E-03 7.440E+07 1.59E-03 4.69E+10 10 5.000E-03 4.000E-03 4.000E-03 4.33E-03 9.301E+07 2.06E-03 4.51E+10 12 6.000E-03 5.000E-03 5.000E-03 5.33E-03 1.116E+08 2.54E-03 4.39E+10 14 7.000E-03 5.000E-03 5.000E-03 5.67E-03 1.302E+08 2.70E-03 4.83E+10 16 9.000E-03 6.000E-03 6.000E-03 7.00E-03 1.488E+08 3.33E-03 4.46E+10 18 1.100E-02 7.000E-03 1.000E-02 9.33E-03 1.674E+08 4.44E-03 3.77E+10 20 1.600E-02 1.000E-02 1.200E-02 1.27E-02 1.860E+08 6.03E-03 3.08E+10 22 2.200E-02 1.500E-02 4.500E-02 2.73E-02 2.046E+08 1.30E-02 1.57E+10 24 9.600E-02 3.200E-02 1.400E-01 8.93E-02 2.232E+08 4.25E-02 5.25E+09 26 BROKE 4.300E-02 BROKE 4.300E-02 2.418E+08 2.05E-02 1.18E+10 28 BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE Table 1 CONSTANTAN Force (N) Extension (m) Extension (m) Extension (m) Average Extension (m) Stress (Pa) F/A Strain (Ratio) E/L Youngs Modulus 0 0 0 0 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 2 0 0 0 0.00E+00 2.08E+07 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 4 2.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.33E-03 4.16E+07 6.35E-04 6.55E+10 6 3.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.67E-03 6.24E+07 7.94E-04 7.86E+10 8 4.00E-03 2.00E-03 2.00E-03 2.67E-03 8.32E+07 1.27E-03 6.55E+10 10 4.00E-03 3.00E-03 3.00E-03 3.33E-03 1.04E+08 1.59E-03 6.55E+10 12 5.00E-03 3.00E-03 4.00E-03 4.00E-03 1.25E+08 1.90E-03 6.55E+10 14 5.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 4.67E-03 1.46E+08 2.22E-03 6.55E+10 16 6.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 5.00E-03 1.66E+08 2.38E-03 6.98E+10 18 8.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 5.67E-03 1.87E+08 2.70E-03 6.93E+10 20 8.00E-03 4.00E-03 6.00E-03 6.00E-03 2.08E+08 2.86E-03 7.28E+10 22 8.00E-03 5.00E-03 7.00E-03 6.67E-03 2.29E+08 3.17E-03 7.20E+10 24 8.00E-03 6.00E-03 9.00E-03 7.67E-03 2.49E+08 3.65E-03 6.83E+10 26 9.00E-03 7.00E-03 9.00E-03 8.33E-03 2.70E+08 3.97E-03 6.81E+10 28 1.00E-02 7.00E-03 1.10E-02 9.33E-03 2.91E+08 4.44E-03 6.55E+10 30 1.10E-02 9.00E-03 1.20E-02 1.07E-02 3.12E+08 5.08E-03 6.14E+10 32 1.40E-02 1.00E-02 1.40E-02 1.27E-02 3.33E+08 6.03E-03 5.51E+10 34 1.80E-02 1.50E-02 1.70E-02 1.67E-02 3.53E+08 7.94E-03 4.45E+10 36 3.80E-02 1.50E-02 2.00E-02 2.43E-02 3.74E+08 1.16E-02 3.23E+10 38 4.70E-02 2.00E-02 3.00E-02 3.23E-02 3.95E+08 1.54E-02 2.57E+10 40 7.80E-02 3.40E-02 6.70E-02 5.97E-02 4.16E+08 2.84E-02 1.46E+10 42 8.20E-02 9.40E-02 9.20E-02 8.93E-02 4.37E+08 4.25E-02 1.03E+10 44 1.37E-01 1.07E-01 BROKE 1.22E-01 4.57E+08 5.81E-02 7.87E+09 46 1.51E-01 1.67E-01 BROKE 1.59E-01 4.78E+08 7.57E-02 6.31E+09 48 BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE BROKE Table 2 Graph one: How average extension changes with force for copper and constantan (Hookes law) The graph shows how average extension changes with force for Copper and Constantan. The initial part of each curve is linear, thus showing where the extension is proportional to load, on copper the yield stress is reached at 16N and constantan reaches its yield stress at 32N. As can be seen by the graph that constantan extends more than copper and more force is needed with constantan to create a certain extension than is needed with copper for example constantan needs a force of 35N for a 0.02m extension whereas copper only needs a force of 21N for the same extension, this would be due to its atomic arrangement. Constantan is an alloy and so for slipping to occur it is more difficult than for the pure metal copper, due to dislocations being filled up with the nickel atoms in constantan and so dislocations are pinned hence why the greater force is needed for equal extension of constantan compared to copper. The constantan wire diameter was given to be 0.00035m compared to the copper diameter being 0.00037m. This is a major factor in the behaviour of the wire as stress is force per unit area. With the cross sectional areas of the wires being different (copper= 1.07610-7mà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ and constantan = 0.96210-7mà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½), the cross sectional area of constantan being smaller means that the forces acting on the area of constantan wire are grater than the copper wire, so in theory this should put more pressure on the constantan wire and cause it to yield and break easier, however this is not the case due to it being an alloy and it is stronger as its dislocations are pinned. The graph shows that the breaking stress of both materials is also different, with constantan having a breaking stress of 46N and copper at 24N. Hence we can deduce from the information that constantan can handle more stress than copper even though the wire diameter of constantan was 0.002m smaller and that the constantan wire is able to extend more than copper when equal and grater forces are applied to it. I have found out from my graph one analysis that it shows my prediction may be correct of the youngs modulus of constantan being greater than copper. I can state this as stress it is part of the youngs modulus equation, it is a key component needed to calculate youngs modulus of a material, with constantan being more resistant to stress forces acting on it than copper it can be said that the overall Youngs modulus may be higher. Graph two: Stress and strain graph for copper and constantan The second graph I will analyse is a stress and strain graph for copper and constantan. I have made the scale as large as possible so to show the shape of the curve as large as possible so any anomalous points clearly and it will take advantage of the whole page so to use my resources carefully. For this graph a curve will be needed for both sets of data to show how stress changes with strain and to see the yield point graphically. It will be accurate as the points will be plotted carefully with due care to ensure an accurate graph and the scale will be relevant as to show the best possible curve. It will need to be neat to show the best possible curve and most accurate in order to correctly analyse it. The graph shows that the initial linear section is when strain is proportional to stress. So for constantan stress is proportional to strain up until 3.3310+8 Pa (stress) and 6.0310-3 (strain) and copper 1.67410+8 (stress) and 4.4410-3 (strain), this can be seen on the graph as the yield point and it can be clearly seen that the yield point of constantan has a higher stress and strain value, hence greater forces are needed for it to yield. This may be due to the atom arrangement in alloys compared to pure metals. In pure metals there are many dislocations and slipping could occur easily (as shown in figure 3) that these dislocations in pure metals make them more ductile. However alloys have other elements contained in the atomic structure, like constantan which has nickel to fill these dislocations making it stronger, as slipping is more difficult. In alloys the forces between particles are stronger which makes it more difficult to yield or break. The graph also shows the breaking point of each wire, copper being 2.41810+8 Pa (Stress) and 2.0510-2 (strain) and constantan being 4.7810+8 Pa (stress) and 7.5710-2 (strain) and it can be seen on the graph that constantan needs a huge amount more stress and strain force for it to break. Again this is due to it properties as an alloy, which makes it have a high youngs modulus. The youngs modulus is how stiff a material is. In metals the atoms are ionised and free electrons in between the ions. It is this negative charge of the electrons that gules the ions collectively. The ions are able to slip however. When a metal experiences stretching forces then this pulls the bonds apart and gaps open up a little, this is the elastic extensibility of a metal and is 0.1% in metals. However in alloys this may be less as atoms are even closer together therefore have stronger forces of attraction and so may not encounter elastic extensibility as much and therefore is more stable, hence why constantan may have a higher youngs modulus and can withstand higher forces of stress and strain acting on it. This also helps me prove my prediction of the youngs modulus of constantan will be higher than copper due to it being an alloy, the graph clearly shows the constantan is able to withstand greater forces acting on it and therefore could have a higher youngs modulus. To calculate the youngs modulus I will analyse the linear section using graph three. Graph three/ four: Linear expansion of stress and strain graph for copper and constantan/ graph showing error bars to 3% error. Graph three is only the linear section of graph two, it is enlarged so I am able to calculate the youngs modulus of both metals, hence so my prediction can be analysed. I will be calculating the youngs modulus by taking the change in stress divided by change in strain of the linear points for both copper and constantan and using graph four I will analyse the error percentage on the graph to 3%. MATERIAL YOUNGS MODULUS Copper 1.8610+8/6.3510-4= 2.9310+11 pa Constantan 3.3310+8/6.3510-4= 5.2510+11 pa Table 3 As can be seen by the results constantan has a higher youngs modulus value, thus my prediction was correct. Due to the difference in Youngs modulus this means that the metal copper and alloy constantan would react slightly different stress and strain forces are applied to it. As can be seen in the table three the Youngs modulus of constantan is higher, this can be also seen on graph three as all points for constantan is above copper, thus the higher stress and strain resistance of constantan. The line of best fit for constantan shows higher stress and strain than for the line of best fit for copper. This means there is little strain for the large stress forces applied to constantan and copper, so the material is stiff and hard to stretch. I can state that constantan is harder to stretch than copper as the line of best fit is steeper. All the points on graph three show the elastic reigns of copper and constantan, hence if forces on the wire at that time are removed then the material will return to its normal length. Graph four shows error percentage range to 3%. This is acceptable for A-level experiment. The general trend shown is positive correlation and that the higher the stress and strain values for copper or constantan is, shows the error markings to be higher, thus meaning as the experiment is carried out as the forces applied to the materials increase the results become less accurate. The error rate may increase due to the forces acting on the wire being so great that it is close to its yield stress point and so becomes less stable. However there are many anomalous points which lie totally off the general trend of the graph. I have marked points one, two and three (on graph four) as three anomalous points I will analyse. Point one is situated below the line of best fit for copper, it is an considerable anomalous point as it is well below the line of best fit, this means during the collecting data stage an inaccurate reading must have taken place or the weight of the mass been incorrect. Other factors that could have made this point anomalous is that not enough time was taken before a reading was taken, so when a force was applied to the copper at this point it may have still been extending while the reading was taken so the results became inaccurate. Kinks in parts of the wire could also be a factor as this would affect how parts of the wire react to different forces acting on it. This may have also happened to point two for constantan, which was in the same situation as copper. The point three showing a region of seven points of constantan, is a range of points which are slightly off the line of best fit, this may be due to kinks in the wire which caused it to react differently to forces added during these seven points, inaccurate readings could have taken place where not enough time was taken again to let the force applied take its full effect on the wire. These anomalous points could have been caused by kinks in the wire, there could be parts of the wire which are weaker or stronger (notches) and these would extend differently compared to the rest of the wire, hence causing anomalous points in the graphed data. Evaluation I have concluded that my prediction was correct as this was shown by my calculations and can be seen in the graphs I have drawn that constantan has a higher youngs modulus than copper. The experiment was reliable as I believe the experiment was carried out under all the fair test conditions. Also with the experiment having been repeated three times this would level out any extreme values or inaccurate readings as I took the average of extensions to plot my graphs and analyse the data. It was also reliable as data on the material length and diameter were taken accurately and repeated three times and averaged, so the diameter and length of each wire was taken three times and averaged, so I received the average value. The diameter of each wire was made using a micrometer, the error in a micrometer is +/- 5%, so the diameter measurement could have been wrong by approximately 5%. The length of the wire was measured using a metre rule, which would have an uncertainty of 0.5mm, thus the wire length could have actually been +/- 2.1m. In addition the calculation on Youngs modulus could have also been inaccurate as I calculated it using my line of best fit, as this was drawn by my interpretation of what the line of best fit is then it could be human error that Youngs modulus may have been incorrect. The Youngs modulus of copper is 310+10 and constantan is 6.410+10, however my calculations show copper to be 2.9310+11 and constantan to be 5.2510+11, these were close to the real values, however as this was a basic school based experiment and the real values were taken under perfect conditions and all factors accounted for then my values for Youngs modulus were accurate as they were close to the real values. My values may have been less accurate due to the fact that I have not accounted for the friction of the pulley system acting on the wire and thus this would have affected the school based experiments values. The wire length used was 2.1m in length, this was better than wire of half its length as it let the wire extend to its full potential rather than a wire of half its length extending and breaking within a few readings of force and hence less results makes the experiment less reliable as the more results there are the more data there is and hence more accuracy. Also the 2.1m wire was used this made calculations more difficult than if wire was 1m in length, however measuring extension it was easier as it would be larger as the wire is longer so more of it stretches. I have concluded that my prediction was correct as this was shown by my calculations and can be seen in the graphs I have drawn that constantan has a higher youngs modulus than copper. I will now evaluate the accuracy of the data given to me and calculations I have made myself. I have set the my percentage error to be 5%, so if the percentage error is above 5% then I believe this is not accurate enough for an A-level experiment. Percentage error in measurements % error= (Error in measure/measurement) x 100 Area of wire Smallest measurements: 0.00510-3m (Micrometer) and 0.3510-3m (smallest recorded measurement). (0.00510-3/0.3510-3) x100 = 1.43% error The error percentage maximum I set was 5%, I have worked out the error percentage of area of wire to be 1.43%, and therefore this is acceptable. Original Length Length of wire taken as 2.1m The error in measure of metre rule is 5mm (510-3m) (0.005/2.1) x100 = 0.238095238% = 0.24% error This error is acceptable as it is well below the 5% error maximum I set, so this was seen to be literally an error free measurement. Force Mass= 100g each, but 2N intervals in force, so 200g mass for each interval. The mass error is between 99-101g, so +/- 1g. As two were used then 12= +/-2g error. (2/200) x100 = 1% error As my error maximum was set to 5%, a 1% error for force is acceptable. Bibliography * http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/chem/course/studhand/solids.html- found out composition of copper and constantan. (7/10) * http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=60- information on copper alloys (5/10) * AS physics text book: very useful, chapter 4-5 are very useful and contained lots of information on the physics theory of my investigation (9/10) * AS-physics CD-ROM: provided guides on how to set out coursework and information on the experiment hat this coursework was based on. (8/10) * AS Physics teacher: Miss Bottomly: Very helpful. Introduced coursework, hence this would not have been possible without teachers help. (10/10) By, Kamlesh Vadukul (Heathland school) AS-Level Physics